Born April 16, 1927, in Germany's Bavaria, Joseph Ratzinger was a theologian by training.

He led the Catholic Church for fewer than eight years until, in 2013,

Pop Benedict became the first Pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415.

Pope Benedict had experienced declining health due to his advanced age

On Feb. 11, 2013, Benedict XVI shocked the world by announcing Resign: "After having repeatedly examined my conscience before God,

Benedict spent his final years at the Mater Ecclesiae monastery within the walls of the Vatican 

The U.K.'s Queen Elizabeth II meets with Pope Benedict in Edinburgh, Scotland, during his historic state visit

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger meets with Russian Orthodox Archbishop Wladimir Dimitrowskij

Like his father, Benedict opposed Hitler. But at age 14, he was forced to join the Hitler Youth.